Cause & Effect Phrases

Verbs expressing causality

Lack of protein may cause
can lead to
can result in
mental retardation.


Low levels of chlorine in the body can give rise to high blood presssure.


Much of the instability stems from the economic effects of the war.


Kwashiorkor is a disease
Beri-beri is a disease
Scurvy is a disease
caused by
resulting from
stemming from
insufficient protein.
vitamin deficiency.
lack of vitamin C.


Nouns expressing causality

The most likely causes of X are poor diet and lack of exercise.


A consequence of vitamin A deficiency is blindness.


Physical activity is an important factor in maintaining fitness.


Many other medications have an influence on cholesterol levels.


Another reason why Xs are considered to be important is that …….


Prepositional phrases expressing causality

200,000 people per year become deaf owing to
because of
as a result of
a lack of iodine.


Sentence connectors expressing causality

If undernourished and retarded children do survive to become adults, they have decreased learning ability. Therefore,
Because of this,
As a result (of this),
when they grow up, it will probably be difficult for them to find work.


Adverbial phrases expressing causality

Malnutrition leads to illness and a reduced ability to work in adulthood, thus/thereby perpetuating the poverty cycle.


The warm air rises above the surface of the sea, thus/thereby creating an area of low pressure.


Other examples

As a consequence of X , it appears that winds alone are not the causative factor of…….
Due to X and Y inflowing surface water becomes more dense as it …….
X and Y are important driving factors of Z.
The mixing of X and Y exerts a powerful effect upon Z through ……


Possible cause and effect relationships (expressed tentatively)

This suggests a weak link may exist between X and Y.
The human papilloma virus is linked to most cervical cancer.
Stomach cancer in many cases may be associated with certain bacterial infections.
A high consumption of seafood could be associated with infertility.
There is some evidence that X may affect Y.






Cause & Effect Phrases

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Academic Phrases


Cause and effect phrases


Caution phrases


Classification phrases


Comparison phrases


Concluding phrases


Critical evaluation


Defining phrases


Example phrases


Formal phrases


Introduction phrases


Quality phrases


Referencing phrases


Reporting phrases





All the academic phrases

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