What is cohesion?
Cohesion refers to the way texts use grammar and vocabulary to ‘stick’ or ‘glue’ ideas together. This is done through articles (a/an/the), pronouns(it/this/these/that/those/etc..), word families (analyse/ analysis) / summary nouns(approach/trend/issue)and synonyms (effect/consequence). In addition to these above key areas, relative clauses, ellipsis and connectors are also important.
Pronouns: It / this / these / that / those / they
Example: Bristol is situated in the South west of the U.K. It has a population of 530,000 people.
Using other forms of the key verb/noun:
Example:Jones (2016) analysed the data and found that …. This analysis provided evidence that…
Using a noun [this/these + summary noun] to explain the key idea of the previous sentence.
Example: Many psychologists have been investigating the key reasons for divorce for many years. Their research / evidence seems to suggest that a lack of communication is one of the key issues.
Key examples of Summary Nouns:
Using a synonym to avoid word repetition of the previous sentence.
Example: Economists believe that the next financial crisis will be from Student Loan debt. This understanding / assumption / thought / knowledge is also shared with financial experts.
Joining sentences together using relative clauses (which / that / where / who ) aids cohesion
According to Official Government figures (2016), 34 million people voted equating to a 72% turnout. This was the highest ever number of people in the history of voting.
Relative Clause Example: According to Official Government figures (2016), 34 million people voted equating to a 72% turnout which was the highest ever number of people in the history of voting.
Ellipsis indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning. Relative Clause Example: There have been a number of important experiments on how video games encourage violence in adolescents. Two of the most interesting (experiments) are based around Smith’s (2018) work.
Coherence is concerned with how a writer guides the reader through the argument using logical connectors. It can be achieved by using signposting phrases. A signpost is a phrase that a writer or speaker uses to indicate different stages or parts of a written or spoken text
Example: In contrast to the conclusion drawn by Smith (2004), Nguyen (2006) showed that the connection between the factors was not causal in most circumstances.
Example: The main arguments for Brexit were to regain sovereignty, to cut immigration, and to remove restrictions of the single market to access global markets.
Parallelism Worksheet: 8 exercises
This worksheet provides an explanation of the key concepts of ‘parallelism’ and provides an error correction exercise to practise the key concepts. An awareness of this writing element really helps establish unity and readability in sentence structure. See Example worksheet. Level: ***** [B1/B2/C1] TEACHER MEMBERSHIP