WRITING / Paragraphing

 Academic Paragraphing

Basic Paragraph Structure

A basic paragraph should consist of four key parts. 1) Topic Sentence (sometimes called a paragraph leader or controlling idea). 2) Development (a detailed explanation of the topic(s). 3) Example (this can be data, stats, theory, evidence, etc..) and should be referenced to an author for credibility. 4) Summary (summarise the ideas &/or evaluate how effective these are).

Example Paragraph on CSR

This provides an example of a basic four-part paragraph. The second picture shows in colours how the paragraph is divided in to its four key sections.

The Importance of the Topic Sentence  

Topic Sentences are extremely important sentences. The key topics in this sentence MUST connect clearly to the content of the paragraph. These examples show clearly how the topics of the topic sentence connect to the content in the paragraph.

A Counter Argument Paragraph Structure

This example highlights how a counter-argument paragraph can be written. The Topic Sentence focuses on the argument successful management tool and value. These two topics are addressed in both the argument for and the counter argument.

Example of Academic Paragraph

Topic sentence / Synthesising authors / support/ examples / contrasting authors / comments

It is not easy to deal with the mature market consisting of the heterogeneous consumers who have significantly different personal values, financial status and health conditions, and there being no consensuses of the segmentations and common theories of their behaviour (Ahmad 2002; Pak & Kambil 2006; Sudbury & Simcock 2009). Concerning just the definition of elderly, there are several views from academics. Whereas elderly people are defined age 65 and over that most people retire in general (Reisenwitz et al. 2007; Yoon et al. 2009), some academics regard the people who range from the age 50 and over or over 55 year-old as older people (Morris et al. 2006; Pak and Kambil 2006; Myers and Lumbers 2008). For example, Ahmad (2002) introduces three types of cohort classification of older people. ‘Young Old’ are 55-64 in age range and they tend to be powerful and active, and then ‘Old old’ are aged 75 and over, and they are less likely to be active. Finally, ‘Mature’ are belong to 65-74 age group and they are in transition between ‘Young Old’ and ‘Old old’. In contrary, Baron (2008) criticizes the segmentation itself by chronological age as meaningless, because many older people tend to feel younger than their actual age and behave according. Therefore, defining a clear segmentation of older people seems to be considerably difficult.

Academic Paragraphing with parts highlighted

Topic sentence / Synthesising authors / support / examples / contrasting authors / comment

It is not easy to deal with the mature market consisting of the heterogeneous consumers who have significantly different personal values, financial status and health conditions, and there being no consensuses of the segmentations and common theories of their behaviour (Ahmad 2002; Pak & Kambil 2006; Sudbury & Simcock 2009). Concerning just the definition of elderly, there are several views from academics. Whereas elderly people are defined age 65 and over that most people retire in general (Reisenwitz et al. 2007; Yoon et al. 2009), some academics regard the people who range from the age 50 and over or over 55 year-old as older people (Morris et al. 2006; Pak and Kambil 2006; Myers and Lumbers 2008). For example, Ahmad (2002) introduces three types of cohort classification of older people. ‘Young Old’ are 55-64 in age range and they tend to be powerful and active, and then ‘Old old’ are aged 75 and over, and they are less likely to be active. Finally, ‘Mature’ are belong to 65-74 age group and they are in transition between ‘Young Old’ and ‘Old old’. In contrary, Baron (2008) criticizes the segmentation itself by chronological age as meaningless, because many older people tend to feel younger than their actual age and behave according. Therefore, defining a clear segmentation of older people seems to be considerably difficult.

Argument Organisation Structure

An argument essay structure is generally organised in two ways. A Block structure is where the two main body paragraphs divided separaetly into for or against. A Point-to-Point structure is where each main body paragraph has an argument followed by the counter argument. (see below)

Main Body Paragraph Structure (Block)

Main Body Paragraph Structure (Point-to-Point)

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This